Foot & Ankle Conditions

The foot and ankle are complex structures, making them vulnerable to a variety of injuries. Many injuries or conditions can be successfully treated with simple measures, such as bracing, or rehabilitation exercises. Other injuries may require an injection or surgery to correct.

A critical first step for treatment is identifying your specific foot or ankle condition based on the injury you experienced or the type of pain you're feeling. Follow the links below to view educational videos about common foot and ankle conditions and injuries that the expert physicians at Resurgens Orthopaedics can help treat.

Types of Foot Conditions

There are many types of diseases and disorders that may affect tendons, tissues, muscles, or bones of the foot and can interfere with daily life.

These conditions may be the result of trauma, overuse, or the result of congenital illness. At Resurgens, some of the foot conditions we help include:

Accessory Navicular

Accessory navicular is a congenital condition where there is an extra piece of bone or cartilage located on the inner side of the foot arch. When the posterior tibial tendon and bone become aggravated, some afflicted people develop a painful condition called accessory navicular syndrome. Some people with this condition never notice it at all.

Adult Acquired Flatfoot

Adult acquired flatfoot - sometimes known as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, or posterior tibial tendon insufficiency - is the result of failing ligaments and joints on the inner side of the foot and ankle. The condition causes the collapse of the foot arch and/or the ankle. It is a painful condition that sometimes causes deformities.

Cavus Foot (High-Arched Foot)

Cavus foot is a condition where the foot has a very high arch. Because of the high arch, the heel and the ball of the foot experience an excessive amount of weight when upright. The condition causes a lot of disparate symptoms like pain and instability. People of any age are at risk of developing the condition, and it can occur in one or both feet.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT)

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders. This disorder affects motor and sensory nerves throughout the body. It is usually not life-threatening and rarely affects the brain. CMT is also called hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), or peroneal muscular atrophy.

Charcot's Neuroarthropathy (CN)

Charcot's Neuroarthopathy is a type of joint damage, most commonly seen in the foot. The condition affects the bones, joints, and soft tissues in the bones and ankle. If not caught in its early stages, the joints in the foot collapse and the foot eventually becomes deformed. While there is no single known cause for the condition, it can often develop in people with unrecognized sprains or broken bones, those who have had an organ transplant, or those with diabetes.

Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus)

Clubfoot is a congenital deformity defined by the inward deviation of the foot/feet at birth. It affects the major structures of the foot, including bones, muscles, and skin. It can occur in a single foot but can be bilateral in 50% of cases.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a type of chronic and long-lasting pain. In most cases it develops in a previously injured arm or a leg. With CRPS you may have unexplained pain that won't go away. The pain may be severe and it may spread to other places on your body. There is no exact cause for CRPS. it's an abnormal response your body has to being hurt. It seems to be a type of overreaction almost like an allergy. Treatment can involve physical therapy, medications, a nerve block, an implanted medicine pump and other options.

Diabetic Foot

The diabetic foot is a complex problem that presents as a result of having diabetes 1 or 2. When people have prolonged periods of high blood sugar, multiple problems in the foot may occur. Diabetic neuropathy (loss of feeling in the feet) and peripheral artery disease (poor blood supply to the foot) are the two most common problems. If untreated they can lead to serious complications.

Fracture of the Heel Bone (Calcaneus)

Fracture of the heel bone is a break in the heel bone (calcaneus) which forms the back of the foot. This bone supports the foot and is important for normal walking, and injury can result from overuse. Symptoms include pain and swelling in the back or bottom of the heel. The skin can be bruised and or cut in more serious injuries. Treatment is based upon the severity of the injury. Splints/casts/braces are used in some cases, whereas others may require surgery.


There are two types of Gout. Primary gout and is caused by an increase in the formation of uric acid in the bloodstream. Secondary gout can occur due to other metabolic causes of increased uric acid in the bloodstream. While uric acid is a natural byproduct of amino acid breakdown, it becomes a problem for your body when there's too much and it causes hyperuricemia in the blood, which creates joint and bursa inflammation.

Haglund's Deformity (Retrocalcaneal Bursitis)

Haglund's deformity is commonly known as a "pump bump" or retrocalcaneal bursitis. It presents as a painful enlargement of the back of the heel bone that becomes irritated by shoe gear. Depending on the severity of the condition, treatment can include RICE, orthotics, or surgery.

Jones Fractures

A Jones fracture is a specific type of foot fracture involving the outside portion of the foot and specifically the fifth metatarsal bone. Symptoms include pain, swelling and sometimes bruising along the outside portion of the midfoot. These fractures can occur slowly due to overuse or from sudden overextension. Depending on the severity of the injury, it may require surgery.

LisFranc (Midfoot) Fracture/Dislocation

Lisfranc fracture is a foot injury in which there is displacement of the metatarsal bones and the tarsus bones. The injury occurs halfway between the ankle and the toes. It can occur as a result of athletic activities like windsurfing, wakeboarding, snowboarding, or any activity where a foot in secured in a boot. Treatment can include casting, physical therapy, orthotics, and in some severe cases, surgery.


Metatarsalgia usually occurs from overuse due to heavy activity such as running, jumping, or walking. Metatarsalgia can also develop from wearing a new pair of shoes (particularly high heeled shoes that put your foot at an unusual angle), from the excessive weight from pregnancy or obesity, or from rheumatoid arthritis. The shape of some people's feet means they more of a higher tendency to develop metatarsalgia than others. Treatment may include orthotics, RICE, and medication.

Morton's Neuroma

Morton's neuroma - sometimes called plantar neuroma - occurs as the nerve passes under the ligament connecting the toe bones in the forefoot. The tissue that surrounds the nerve leading to the toes becomes thick. Common symptoms include burning in the ball of the foot, numbness in the toes, sharp or dull main between the third and fourth toes. Treatment can include changing footwear, orthotics, injections, or surgery.

Muscle Strain of the Calf (Gastrocnemius / Soleus Strain)

Muscle Strain of the Calf (Gastrocnemius / Soleus Strain) is a common injury where the gastrocnemius or soleus muscles of the lower leg are stretched or torn. The gastrocnemius is the calf's large muscle, and the soleus is the smaller muscle beneath the gastrocnemius, slightly lower on the leg. These muscles join to form the Achilles tendon. One or both muscles may be affected. Calf strains are usually caused by athletic activity. Typically a person who strains the calf will experience a sudden sharp pain and/or popping sensation in the back of the leg. Treatment may include RICE, medicine, physical therapy, massage therapy, braces, or surgery.

Navicular Stress Fracture

Navicular stress fracture occurs within the tarsal bones of the midfoot. It is a common injury in athletes, particularly those who participate in high-impact sports that require jumping, sprinting, and sudden directional changes such as track and field. Treatment can include rest, crutches, or casting.

Osteochondral Injuries of the Talus

Osteochondral injuries of the talus (sometimes called osteochondritis dissecans, or talus osteochondral lesions) can occur as a result of a cut-off blood supply at the end of your bone. The affected bone and its covering of cartilage may stay in place and create no symptoms, or it can fragment, gradually loosen, separate and cause pain. Osteochondral lesions are relatively common causes of ankle pain and disability. Trauma or genetic factors can cause OIT.


Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. It is a rare but serious condition. There are a number of ways that your bones can become infected. For example Infection can penetrate a bone by spreading from nearby tissue, or through the bloodstream. Sometimes infections begin in the bone itself after an injury exposes the bone to germs. Without prompt treatment these infections can become chronic and debilitating to your health.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a painful inflammation of this fascia - a thick strap-like tendon that runs from the bottom of your foot and supports your arch. The tension on the fascia, or due to tiny spurs that grow on the fascia causes pain at the point where it attaches to the heel.

Plantar Warts

Plantar warts occur when a virus enters the body through cuts or breaks in the skin and causes non-cancerous growths to build upon the soles of the feet. They are not dangerous, but they can be painful and resistant to treatment.

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a condition caused by the overstretching and inflammation of a tendon that runs from the muscle in the calf down to the arch of the foot. This tendon is one of the major supporting structures of the foot's arch and aids in walking. Treatment can vary from RICE to physical therapy, steroid injections, and surgery.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Foot and Ankle

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a condition of the immune system that can attack joints throughout the body. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Foot and Ankle is one of the most common ways RA can manifest. It can make walking painful and difficult. Treatment can include orthotics, physical therapy, medication, and surgery, among others. Resurgens also offers special treatment options endorsed and approved by the Arthritis Foundation.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Foot and Ankle (Arthritis Foundation Approved)

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) of the Foot and Ankle (Arthritis Foundation Approved) is a chronic autoimmune disease that attacks multiple joints throughout the body. Aching joints are common in arthritis, however, in rheumatoid arthritis the joint lining swells, invades surrounding tissues, and creates chemical substances that attack and destroy the joint surface. Resurgens offers Arthritis Foundation Approved treatment options for patients with RA. The AF treatment emphasizes early treatment to target RA remission, as well as a combination of drugs to combat pain and slow disease activity. In severe cases surgery may be necessary.

Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle

Stress fractures are a small crack in a bone or severe bruising within a bone. The causes of most of these injuries are overuse and repetitive activity. It is a common injury in runners and athletes who participate in running sports, such as soccer and basketball.

Tibial Fractures

Tibial Fractures - also called shinbone fractures - are the most commonly fractured long bone in the body. A fracture occurs along the length of the bone below the knee, and above the ankle. Depending on the severity of the fracture you may experience inability to walk, deformity, protruding bone, and/or loss of feeling in foot. There are several treatment options including casting, bracing, intramedullary nailing, or insertion of metal pins or screws.

Types of Toe Conditions

Toe conditions and diseases can develop as a result of a sudden impact, injury, or repetitive stress, No matter what the cause of your toe condition is, it can have a serious impact on your daily life.

Treatments for toe conditions vary as widely as causes. They can include RICE, injections, physical therapy, medication, and even surgery. Resurgens offers solutions for some of these toe conditions:


A bunion, also known as hallux valgus, is a bony projection affecting the joint at the base of the big toe. The condition looks like a bump on the outer portion of the joint. A bunion can develop from pressure on the base of the big toe. This can result from stress on the toe related to structural problems in the leg and foot. Wearing narrow or high-heeled shoes that press the toes together can also contribute to bunions. You also may develop the condition if you have arthritis or a family history of joint weakness.

Bunionette Deformity (Tailor's Bunion)

Bunionette deformity occurs on the outside part of the foot. The fifth toe (pinky) joint becomes enlarged and painful. Causes are either an enlargement of the toe (metatarsal head) and or a change in the angle of the joint bones.

Claw Toe

Claw toe is a result of some injury to the nerves of your foot. As a result of foot trauma, one of the nerves that control your foot muscles do not function, causing the foot to point downward. It is common in diabetics and treatment involves getting your foot to resume its natural position using taping, splints, and in some cases surgery.


Corns are the name for thickened areas of skin. They typically occur in areas of pressure on the toes or the ball of the foot. There are two main types of corns. Hard corns are thicker, with a waxy appearance and are found on the top of the toes or the ball of the foot. Whereas soft corns occur between the toes and remain softer due to the increased moisture between the toes. Both types can be painful.

Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus literally means "stiff great toe"; however, limitation of the motion of the big toe is only one element of the range of symptoms that constitute the diagnosis of hallux rigidus. Hallux rigidus encompasses mild to severe degenerative arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the foot causing walking can become painful and difficult.


A hammertoe is a deformity of the second, third or fourth toes. In this condition, the toe is bent at the middle joint, so that it resembles a hammer. Initially, hammertoes are flexible and can be corrected with simple measures but, if left untreated, they can become fixed and require surgery.

Ingrown Toenails

An ingrown toenail occurs when the corners of a nail curl downward and grow into the skin on the edge of the toe, causing pain and swelling. Treatment includes nonsurgical and surgical options.

MTP Synovitis (Capsulitis)

MTP synovitis is an inflammation of the metatarsophalangeal (or MTP) joint synovial lining. Located at the base of the toes, these joints experience a significant amount of pressure with a normal gait.


Sesamoiditis is an irritation of the sesamoid bones, located within the tendons that slide along either side of the bottom of the big toe. Treatment options include rest, a modified shoe, or custom orthotics, shoe pads, immobilization of the toe joint to speed the healing process, ibuprofen to decrease pain and swelling. Severe cases may require a below-the-knee walking cast and steroid injections.

Types of Ankle Conditions

The ankle is prone to many types of stress and injury. This is due to the fact that it's an interconnected series of sensitive components.

Resurgens Orthopaedics has many years of expertise in a number of non-surgical and surgical ankle procedures. Treating some ankle conditions may require basic steps like physical rehab or orthotics. However, others may need inpatient or outpatient surgery to correct.

At Resurgens, our expert physicians can help treat the following ankle conditions:

Achilles Tendon Injuries

The most common Achilles tendon injuries are tears/ruptures after a sudden injury or inflammation resulting in tendinitis/tendinosis from overuse. In the case of an Achilles tear, a pop may be heard associated with sharp pain, difficulty bending your ankle downwards and walking with a limp. Both non-surgical and surgical options are available for Achilles injuries.

Ankle Sprains

Ankle Sprains occur when the ligaments in the ankle bones are subject to abnormal movements such as twisting, turning, or rolling of the foot. Forcing a ligament beyond its limits causes sprains.

Chronic Lateral Ankle Pain

Chronic lateral ankle pain occurs on the outer side of the ankle. It often develops after an injury such as a sprained ankle. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, swelling, and difficulty walking, among others. Several conditions can also cause chronic pain, but a sprained ankle is the most common.

Fracture of the Talus

Fractures of the talus are relatively uncommon and typically result from high-energy trauma to the ankle. Fractures can happen in different parts of the talus, each with varying pain symptoms and prognosis. These fractures have the potential to be devastating, sometimes resulting in arthritis.

High Ankle Sprain (Syndesmosis Ligament Injury)

A high ankle sprain occurs in one or more of the ligaments that hold the tibia and fibula together at the ankle. Healing from a high ankle sprain can take anywhere from six weeks to three months - sometimes even more. Healing time depends on how badly you've injured the soft tissue and if there was any bone damage.

Peroneal Tendon Tears

Peroneal tendon tears involve damaging one or both peroneal tendons, which travel down the lower leg, behind a bone on the outside of the ankle joint and along the outer side of the ankle. An unstable ankle fracture causes the ankle joint to not work properly.

Pilon Fractures

Pilon fractures affect the base of the tibia (the largest of the two bones in the lower leg). They involve the weight-bearing surface of the tibia and typically occur just above the ankle. In many cases, when the tibia is fractured, the thinner bone in the lower leg (called the fibula) is also broken.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (Posterior Tibial Neuralgia)

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome, also called TTS, affects the tibial nerve in the ankle. When the nerve tunnel experiences overuse or over-compression, it causes numbness and pain. It is similar to carpal tunnel. Treatment varies and may include RICE, injections, or surgery.

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