Learn About General Anesthesia
General anesthesia is a specialized medication used to induce a state of controlled unconsciousness or "sleep" for patients undergoing surgical procedures. It's different from regular sleep as it prevents patients from feeling pain and remembering the surgery. Predominantly used for major operations including hip replacements, heart and spine surgeries, general anesthesia plays a crucial role in ensuring these potentially life-changing procedures are both feasible and comfortable for patients.
What You Need To Know About General Anesthesia
- What Is General Anesthesia?
- When Is General Anesthesia Used Over Other Types of Anesthesia?
- How To Prepare for General Anesthesia
- How Is General Anesthesia Administered?
- Are There Risks Associated With General Anesthesia?
- Recovering From General Anesthesia
What Is General Anesthesia?
General anesthesia is a sophisticated medication that causes unconsciousness in a patient. It is usually administered through inhaled gasses or intravenous drugs. Its primary role is to eliminate pain and discomfort during surgical procedures, ensuring the patient remains unaware and unresponsive to the ongoing surgery. While under the influence of general anesthesia, patients will not retain any memories of what transpired during their medical procedure. In certain situations, a breathing tube might be introduced into the patient's windpipe to maintain appropriate breathing throughout the surgery.
General anesthesia is expertly administered by an anesthesiologist, a medical doctor specially trained in the field of anesthesiology. As the anesthesia takes effect, you lose consciousness, and various body functions may slow down or require assistance to function effectively. Throughout the surgery, your anesthesiologist continuously monitors critical bodily functions such as your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and other vital signs. This careful monitoring ensures your bodily functions remain normal and that you continue to stay unconscious and free from pain.
When Is General Anesthesia Used Over Other Types of Anesthesia?
General anesthesia is typically used for surgical procedures where it's more beneficial or comfortable for the patient to be unconscious. It's often the chosen type of anesthesia for more invasive surgeries which impact major organs like the heart or brain, operations that might interfere with breathing, or those involving significant blood loss.
On the other hand, minor surgeries or procedures affecting a small part of your body may require alternatives such as local anesthesia, which numbs a specific area while you stay awake. Regional anesthesia is used to numb larger sections of your body like your legs. The choice of anesthesia depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the procedure, the patient's health, medications, allergies, and medical history.
How To Prepare for General Anesthesia
Before your surgery, you'll have a meeting with your doctor and anesthesiologist to discuss the procedure and what to expect. During this pre-operative consultation, your anesthesiologist will need to know about any existing medical conditions, medications you take (including over-the-counter medicines and herbal supplements), allergies, lifestyle habits, and previous experiences with anesthesia.
It's crucial to refrain from consuming anything but water approximately 8 hours before your surgery, as general anesthesia can relax your muscles, leading to potential complications. Certain medications and supplements known to increase bleeding such as aspirin, blood thinners, and herbs like Ginkgo biloba or St. John's wort might need to be discontinued a week or more before your procedure.
Always consult your doctor about which medications can still be taken on the day of your surgery with a small sip of water. Remember to arrange for post-procedure transportation and assistance at home while you recover.
What to Expect During General Anesthesia
Step 1: An anesthesiologist, along with a nurse anesthetist and potentially other team members, will prepare you for your anesthesia procedure. They'll oversee your care before, during, and post-surgery.
Step 2: General anesthesia is delivered through an IV line inserted into a vein in your arm or hand. Alternatively, you might inhale it as a gas through a mask. Within a couple of minutes, you should be asleep.
Step 3: Once you're asleep, your breathing may be assisted by a ventilation machine through a breathing tube to ensure you receive adequate oxygen throughout the surgery. To avoid discomfort during insertion, medication is administered to relax the muscles in your throat.
Step 4: Depending on the kind of surgery you're undergoing, you could remain asleep for hours.
Step 5: Throughout the surgery, the anesthesiologist and their team continuously monitor your vital signs and adjust the anesthesia as necessary to maintain your safety and comfort.
Are There Risks Associated With General Anesthesia?
While all medical procedures, surgical or non-surgical, come with some degree of risk, it's important to understand that the administration of general anesthesia also carries specific risks. These risks are rare but still critical to acknowledge. Serious complications are more likely if you're undergoing major or emergency surgery, have existing illnesses, are overweight, or smoke.
Potential risks associated with general anesthesia include:
- A severe allergic reaction to the anesthetic, known as anaphylaxis.
- Waking up during the operation, also known as accidental awareness.
- Postoperative confusion, or delirium, which typically resolves after about a week.
- Memory issues after the procedure, particularly prevalent in people with heart disease, lung disease, Alzheimer's, or Parkinson's disease.
- Increased risk of complications for those who are obese, elderly, or have high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, lung disease, epilepsy, or kidney disease.
- Increased risk for those with obstructive sleep apnea, a condition that interrupts breathing during sleep.
- Potential complications for smokers or those taking certain medications like aspirin, which can increase bleeding.
- Rare occurrences of still being awake after receiving general anesthesia or feeling pain during surgery while unable to move or communicate.
- In rare cases, death.
The anesthesiologist will discuss these risks with you before your surgery. Leading a healthy lifestyle, abstaining from smoking or drinking, and maintaining a healthy weight can help reduce the risk of complications.
Recovering From General Anesthesia
After a procedure involving general anesthesia, recovery time varies based on the type of surgery performed and the individual's health condition. Initially, upon waking, it's common for patients to experience side effects such as drowsiness, confusion, chills, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, or a sore throat. However, these symptoms typically subside quickly.
Post-procedure care involves the following guidelines:
- Begin with consuming small amounts of clear liquids such as water or club soda
- Avoid foods that are sweet, spicy, or hard to digest during the day following the procedure. As your body adjusts, gradually increase your food intake.
- If you feel nauseated, rest your stomach for an hour before attempting to consume clear liquids.
- Ensure a responsible adult stays with you for at least 24 hours after surgery as the anesthesia can affect your judgment, coordination, and reaction time.
- Do not engage in activities requiring motor coordination such as driving or operating heavy machinery. Similarly, refrain from making any important or legal decisions for 12 to 24 hours post-procedure or while taking narcotic prescription pain medication.
- Take your prescribed medicines as directed by your healthcare provider.
- Abstain from alcohol for at least 24 hours after you leave the hospital or while taking prescription pain medication.
Seek immediate medical attention if you experience uncontrolled nausea and vomiting, and contact your healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns after surgery. Most patients can either go home or transition to a regular hospital room within a few hours following their procedure. Your anesthesiologist will monitor your recovery and assess your need for pain medication. Particularly after major surgery, as the general anesthesia wears off, you may experience increased pain, which your healthcare team will help manage.